NATURA 2000 SITES AND PROJECT PROTECTED NATURAL AREAS
Project activities cover the following Natura 2000 sites and protected areas:
In the Museum of Cris County, Bihor County Council subordinate institution:
Natura 2000 site and Nature Reserve Betfia Hill Place fossil Şomleului, Natura 2000 site Lake Creek Nature Reserve stains and blemishes and Reserve Natura 2000 site and limestone tortoniene from Tăşad.
Natura 2000 site Betfia and Natural Reservation Locul fosilifer (Fossil site), on Şomleului Hill
Betfia site and Natural Reservation Locul fosilifer from Şomleului Hill is located at about 9 km SE of Oradea, near the Betfia village, Com. Sânmartin, Bihor County. The reservation can be reached from Oradea by route E 79 until 1 Mai Balneum and from there through the village road that crosses the Haieu village until the Betfia village. Locul fosilifer (Fossil site) is located at about 300 m from the edge of the village, on the south-western slope of Şomleu Hill, near Betfia Avenal, known locally under the name of Hudra Bradii, geographic data location of the reserve being 22 ° 1 ’19’ east longitude and 46 ° 58 ’94 ” northern latitude, with an area of 0.40 ha. Betfia site has an area of 1748 ha and overlaps with the reservation, geographical location data being 22 ° 01 ’41 ” eastern longitude and 46 ° 58′ 30″ northern latitude, representing a particular importance for bat species, amphibians and reptiles.
Natura 2000 site Peţea Lake and Natural Reserve Peţea Creek
Peţea Lake site and Peţea Creek Natural Reservation is located in Banat and Criş Plain, in 1 Mai Balneum 1 Mai, Sânmartin-Rontău village, at about 9 km from Oradea, Bihor County. Peţea Creek has its origins in the “Ochiul Ţiganului” spring clogged today, followed by “Ochiul Pompei” (captured and poorly functional) and “Ochiul Mare”, who took the appearance of a small lake, which remains the main natural source who debits today, the rest of springs being practically extinct. Its geographical location data are 24° 00 ’04 “east longitude, 21″ 59′ 01 ” west longitude, 46 ° 59 05 ‘ north latitude and 46 ° 59 04′ south latitude and covers an 4 hectares area. The Peţea Lake site has 49 ha and overlaps with Peţea Creek Natural Reservation, witch is located geographical at 21° 58 ’39 “east longitude and 47 ° 0’ 38” north latitude and represents the only natural thermal ecosystem in Romania.
Reserve Natura 2000 site and Calcarelor Tortoniene Tăşad Reservation
Tăşad site and Calcarelor Tortoniene Natural Reservasion (a limestone reservation) from Tăşad is located on Crişanei Hills, Drăgeşti village, Tăşad locality in Bihor County, at 22 km from Oradea and 12 km from Băile Felix. The access to the reservation is made on national road 79 Oradea Beiuş. It is bordered by Tăşad locality at west, Poiana Tăşad at north, Bucuroaia at east and Drăgeşti / Stracos at south and covers an 0.40 ha area. The access can be made also from european road 60 Oradea – Cluj, from Oşorhei town on county road 767E, to Poiana Tăşad by Copăcel. Geographical location data are 22° 05 ’02 ” east longitude and 46 ° 57′ 01″ north latitude. Tăşad site has an area of 1557 ha and overlaps with Calcarele Tortoniene Reservation from Tăşad, geographical location data of Natura 2000 site Tăşad being 22° 8 ’10 “east longitude and 46 ° 55′ 55” north latitude.
– In custody of Bihor County Council: Natura 2000 site ROSCI0347 Pajiştea Fegernic, ROSCI0291 Site “Coridorul Munţii Bihorului – Codru Moma” Natura 2000 ROSCI0267 Site Valea Roşie, ROSCI0084 Site Ferice – Plai, Platoul Vaşcău ROSCI0200 Site.
Natura 2000 site ROSCI0347 Pajiştea Fegernic
It is located in north-west of Romania, at about 30 km north- east of Oradea City.
The site was declared in 2011, by Ministry of Environment and Forests order no. 2387, amending the Minister for Environment and Sustainable Development Order nr. 1964/2007, regarding creation of protected area of Community importance sites, as part of the European ecological network Natura 2000, in Romania.
ROSCI0347 Site was declared site thanks to habitat – 40A0 Bushes peri-pannonian subcontinent. At the same time, the site is also important for the Pajişti Pannonice steppic loess habitat and for the species: Peucedanum carvifolia, Rosa Gallica, Campanula glomerata, Teucrium chamaedrys, Acer tataricum and Asperula cynanchica. The site has an area of 280 ha, being administratively located in Bihor County. The site territory is located as follows: commune Spinuş 4% and 3% – Sârbi.
The main access roads to the site are the deviations of local interest County Road 191 and 767.
Site coordinates are: E 22° 9 ‘1 “and N 47º 12’ 12”. The average altitude is 171 meters, from minimum 128 meters to maximum 255 m and from the bio-geographic point of view, belong to the continental region. The site is geographically located in the West Hills area. They are located in the western part of the country, hence the name, at the western limit of the Western Carpathians, where they form a hilly rim, with variable height, sometimes fragmented by the entrance of the plain, up near the mountains.
These hills were formed by deposition of coarse material from the edge of the mountain at the end of Neozoic. These materials have been powerful eroded by flowing water action.
The composition talks about the type of relief unit: is a unit from the mountain foothills tilt toward the lowlands (E to V). Elevations decreases from 450 m to 200 m in the west side. The rivers had fragmented the mountain so the current layout is prolonged hills, located discontinuously. River type of relief is well contoured with terraces and wide meadows.
Geological structure contains gravels, sands, clay and lower coal intercalations (lignite, to the north side). Between the rock pores it has been accumulated hydrocarbons reserves, exploited in Barcău area. Dealurile de Vest (Western Hills) enter at the occidental mountain area through golf depressions: Crişul Repede Valley, Vad-Bod depression, on the Crişul Negru Valley, Beiuş Depression, to Crişul Alb Valley, Gurahonţ Depression and Caraşului Valley, Oraviţa Depression, Crişana Hills, bordering Apuseni Mountains with numerous golf depressions.
Pajişstea Fegernic Site was declared a protected area which preserves the two habitats and species mentioned: Peucedanum carvifolia, Rosa Gallica, Campanula glomerata, Teucrium chamaedrys, Acer tataricum and Asperula cynanchica.
The ROSCI0291 Site “Coridorul Munţii Bihorului – Codru Moma” (hereinafter referred to as ROSCI0291)
It is located in Region 5 West of Romania, being located in 65% on Arad County territory and 35% on Bihor County Territory. Its surface has 7591.5 ha.
The geographical coordinates of site are 46° 28’16 north latitude and 22° 17’56” east longitude into the western point, respectively 46° 21’29’ ‘N, 22° 33’17” east in the most eastern point. The site is located at an altitude of 557 m, maximum altitude being 938 m and minimum is 255 m.
The site “CoridorulMunţii Bihorului – Codru Moma” is part of the European ecological network “Natura 2000”. It is a declared protected area, in order to protect the landscape, ecological and cultural diversity, on a representative sample from the national territory of Romania and the Apuseni Mountains. ROSCI0291 site is one of European Community importance and it is a territory that includes land categories of private and state use. It does not overlap above other protected areas of local or national interest. The site does not benefit from the management structure nor has a management plan. It was proposed as SCI site in January, of the 2011 year.
The area has a landscape with great aesthetic value, with a great habitats diversity, flora and fauna. The site includes two bio-geographical regions – continental region and a alpine region – and two habitat classes:
– N16 – deciduous forests – in 94% of the surface;
– N14 – improved grassland – a rate of 6% from the surface.
According to the standard form, Natura 2000 site includes compact forest habitats, which are used as an ecological corridor for large carnivores, the main types of forest here being beech, oak and pine forests.
This great diversity of habitats, flora and fauna is a result from the way of land using over time, on the site territory being used traditional method of land use, but also social organization way of local communities, and traditional customs of the place ROSCI0291 Site can provide a various opportunities for visitors in tourism and recreation, which integrates the traditional way of life of local communities. The ROSCI0291 Site bordered to the northwest with Natura 2000 Codru Moma site ROSCI0042, at north with Natura 2000 Vaşcău Plateau site ROSCI0200 and at east with ROSCI0324 Site Bihor Mountains and in the south makes the transition to the ROSCI0298 Crişul Alb Defile Site (Integration with territory Site – Annex).
The site is included mostly, in Codru Moma mountains territory, located in the southeastern part of these mountains, specifically in Moma Mountain.
Codru-Moma Mountains are part of the Apuseni Mountains, being located in the west part of them. They represent a island mountainous mass, surrounded by depressions. These mountains are delimited at north by Pădurea Craiului Mountains and at east by Bihor Mountains trough Beiuş Depression, drained by Crişul Negru River and at south by Zarand Mountains, trough Zarand and Gurahonţ Depressions, drained by the Crişul Alb River. At west it is bordered by Dealurile de Vest (West Hills).
In the site area, the Moma Mountains relief is developed of impermeable Paleozoic rocks, with valleys bordered by rounded mountain crests. Towards the northern boundary of the site appears limestone, prevailing on the neighboring territory of the site, in Vaşcău Karst Plateau, where they created a spectacular relief.
Valea Roşie Natura 2000 site ROSCI0267
It is located in the north-west of Romania, in the north, north-east of Oradea City.
The site was declared in 2011 by order of the Ministry of Environment and Forests no. 2387, amending the Order of the Minister for Environment and Sustainable Development no.1964/2007, regarding the creation of the protected area of sites of Community importance, as part of the European ecological network Natura 2000, in Romania.
ROSCI0267 was declared habitat – Beech forests type Asperulo-Fagetum (9130), very well represented for amphibian and reptile species and 14 plant species from the red list. According to the website section NEPA protected areas of national interest Fâneaţa Valea Roşie Natural Reservation is included in the Valea Roşie Site (code 2162, IUCN category IVb, Area 4 ha).
The site has an area of 819 ha, being located administratively in Bihor County. The site territory is distributed in terms of overlap with the administrative territory of municipality overlapped, as follows: Ineu 1%, Oradea <1% Oşorhei <1% Paleu 16%. The main way to access the site is Gheorghe Doja street, witch also borders the site to the east part, southeast and southwest. Site coordinates are: E 22° 0 '54' 'and N 47º 5' 8 ''. The average altitude is 226 m, from minimum158 m to maximum 291 m and, by bio-geographic point of view, it belongs to continental region. The site area area is located between the hills that separate and unify in a harmonious way Crişana Plain and the hilly endings of the Apuseni Mountains – Dealurile de Vest (Western Hills), hills that are part of Oradea Hills. Dealurile de Vest (Western Hills), sometimes referred as Banato-Crişene Hills represents a hill border between Western Carpathians and The West Plain, as a joint plan with a relatively low inclination. Like Genesis, Dealurile de Vest (Western Hills) are former coastal plains of continental piedmontal accumulation, continued onshore with continental accumulation of piedmont type. With the lifting of Western Carpathians and Pannonian Sea sedimentation, sediments were formed in the "high" plains and, then, "hills". Their western limit is the Western Plain, transition being made very slowly, almost imperceptible. Western Hills structure is monoclinic, slightly inclined from east to west. As genetic forms of relief, Western Hills include piedmont areas, aprons, knolls, terraced valleys of the main rivers. The average altitude of Oradea Hills is between 140 and 283 m, in contact with the plain descending to 100-120 m, and in contact with mountain rising up to 400 m and sometimes a little more (450-500 m). From geological point of view, the area belongs to the geological structure of major depression Pannonian Plain, in witch the geological sequence is given by the complex clays and sands pannonian - gray purple over which are set recent sand discordant formations, sand, terrace gravel, alluvial formations of clay-loam, Pleistocene-Holocene age, identified in the performed work. Water-bearing formations appear in the upper part of the Pliocene age, up to about 150-200 meters deep. In the deeper layers of marl limestone formations we meet calcareous marl and sandstones of the Miocene age, and from 1050-1100 m we meet them in the limestone formations of Mesozoic age. Valea Roşie (Red Valley) site was declared a protected area which preserves favorable habitats for amphibians and reptiles: Triturus cristatus, Bombina variegata, Bombina bombina. There are not information about the population size of amphibians for which was declared a site, as shown in standard form,. For each of the four species is mentioned only that the species is present, in the form (P).
ROSCI0084 site Ferice – Plai (hereinafter referred to as ROSCI0084)
It has 1,997 hectares and is located in the North West of Romania, in proportion of 100% on Bihor County, Buntesti Village, Ferice village is located in the Beiuş hills, at about 80 km south – east of Oradea City and at 20 km from Beiuş. Natura 2000 site “Ferice – Plai” is declared a protected area, in order to protect the landscape, ecological and cultural diversity.
Geographical Cordonatele site are:
– 1997 ha area
– The average altitude is 731m, from maximum 1206 m to minimum 389 m.
The site is located in Bihor Mountains, which belong to the Apuseni Mountains chain and its territory overlaps the territory of two protected areas:
– Ferice Plai and Hoanca – III IUCN category, natural monument;
– Cârligaţi Peak- Botanical Reservation with dacian endemic flower with oişe (Anemone narcissiflora).
The site was confirmed as SCI in December 2008 for beech forests habitat of Asperulo-Fagetum type (code 9130) well represented in mammal species Rinolophus ferrumequinum (code 1304), bare, with distribution area (C), well preserved (B) and for amphibians and reptiles species listed in Annex II to 92/43 / EEC Directive. The average altitude is 731m, 1206m maximum and 389 m minimum. The important species of flora and fauna are represented by a 7 number of species from the red list and endemic, constituting a botanical reservation with endemic flowers, Dacian with oişe – Anemone narcissiflora. (Annex – ROSCI0084 standard form).
ROSCI0084 is a territory which includes: land categories of private and state use, protected natural areas of community interest. The site is especially important due to the flora, including those referred to other species – which are red list species and endemic species of amphibians and reptiles. The site has not benefited of a global administration form, only some components (natural reserves, botanical reservation with endemic flower Dacian with oişe – Anemone narcissiflora.)
As it was noted above, the site is located on the Bihor Mountains territory) in the northwestern part of it (near their limit to Vlădeasa Mountains) (Annex – Site Map ROSCI0084). They are in the central – west of the Apuseni Mountains and is bordered to the northwest to Pădurea Craiului Mountains, in the North and Northeast to Vlădeasa Mountains, in the East with Muntele Mare Mountain, in South with Găina Mountains and at West with Codru -Moma Mountains and Beiuş Depression.
From geological point of view, the northern part of Bihor Mountains is composed from crystalline rocks. In Bihor Mountains relief waters dissected regular increases, strong, with steep slopes. During the Tertiary Era, Bihor-Vlădeasa Mountain was cut by erosion, and water created a large platform, that preserved fragments from the highest peaks. As a result, the main ridge of the mountain and a few large increases plates side shows, presents nearly horizontal or slightly wavy, easy to pass. So is, for example Cârligaţi Plateau, which overlaps to the Site having as maximum altitude Cârligaţi Top (1694m).
The Climate of Bihor – Vladeasa Mountain is typical mountain cold and wet on the high peaks, gradually fading toward the hem. The average temperature is 2ºC. Cloud increases with altitude and adequate rainfall are generally abundant due west prevailing wind witch comes loaded with water vapors and reach at 1400 mm quantities, specific for the mountains that exceed 2,000 meters altitude.
On Bihor – Vladeasa Mountain trail, distribution of water sources is uneven, depending on the geologic structure and relief. In neocarstic areas, on ridge trails, springs are rare (eg. Vlădeasa or Biharia Rigde), so water supplies should be made before reaching the high. However, there are sources of altitude like cold fountain under the tip of the hook.
Along the valley routes, water supplies are not a problem, because outside these rivers have numerous springs and tributary waters. On such routes are not shown possibilities of water supply.
Regarding habitat types from Ferice Plai Site according to N2000 standard Form is stated the 9130 code for beech forests of Asperulo-Fagetum type, with a good representation and good conservation status overall.
The general characteristics of the Ferice Plai Site are the two habitat classes and certain class of dry grassland habitat with the N09 code, steppes with a share of 3% and N16 habitat class of deciduous forests with a share of 97%. Other features of the site are those that belong to the two protected areas with overlapping to the Ferice Plai Site as namely as Ferice Plai and Hoanca protected area, with piedmont unaltered meadows, with traditional piedmontan abodes and Cârligaţi Peak, botanical reservation with endemic dacian flower and oişe – Anemone narcissiflora.
Ferice Plai site was declared a protected area which preserves favorable habitats for mammals, amphibians and reptiles listed in 92/43 / EEC Directive, Annex II.
ROSCI0200 site Plateau Vaşcău
It is located in Codru-Moma Mountains, at altitudes between 331 m and 892 m.
The lithologic soluble substrate, composed from limestone and dolomite, is a static factor, acted upon, while hydrography (water, on in its various forms of aggregation and organization) constitute the dynamic element that acts. The limestone from Vaşcău Plateau belongs to the medium and upper triassic. The eastern and central plateau area is developing on a massive chalk scale, highly crystalline, with dolomite intercalations, belonging to Pânza de Vaşcău. A special category of plateau karst events from Vaşcău Plateau are sinkholes with earth flat, that frequently harboring water reservoirs, which are called ,,tăuri”(Figure 1). They result from increased clogging with waste material from erosion slopes. Depending on the thickness and composition of deposits (clay minerals constituting itself into a typical waterproof layer), the formed ponds will lase a shorter or longer period of time.
Interfluves passage caves are well represented in Vaşcău Plateau, the most famous example being Câmpeneasca Cave. The potholes are located in the plane crash of major drainage systems endokarstic such as Avenul Boiu from Vaşcău Plateau.
The depression corridor of Ţarinii Valley (Vaşcău Plateau) was developed in central-eastern of the mentioned plateau along the valley with the same name. It has a southeast / northwest orientation, faithfully following the fault lines from the area. Between the suddenly elbow of Ţarina Valley, which radically changes its direction from east – west to south-north and the Câmpeneasca Cave slope, the corridor has about 10 km height and a 400-1000 m width. The altitude of depression hearth descends barely perceptible through north to step out of the field gear, where it has the lowest step (415 m).
Ţarinii Valley, with its springs enter in the limestone perimeter through a over ground course and not through springs or geysers. Câmpeneasca Cave slope can drain the entire flow, even at elevated level, so specific flooding rains do not occur.
At the limit of Vaşcău Plateau is the Călugări Burn, once famous for its dual flash. Probably due to the growing underground drainage the pathways of double intermittent was disturbed and today we are witnessing to a simple drain, with a water flow of about 3-5 minutes, separated by intervals of 15-40 minutes without leakage, depending on rainfall. The spring is surrounded by a picturesque monastery, pilgrimage place for believers in the area.
Habitat types present on the site:
8310 Caves where public access is prohibited
91V0 Dacian Beech forests (Symphyto-Fagion)
9150 Medio-European Beech Forests of Cephalanthero-Fagion
Mammalian species listed in Annex II to 92/43 / EEC Directive:
– Myotis myotis 1324
– 1304 Rhinolophus hipposideros
– 1310 Miniopterus schreibersi
Amphibian and reptile species listed in Annex II to Directive 92/43 / EEC
– 1166 Titurus cristatus- 1193 Bombina variegata
– 4008 Triturus vulgaris ampelensis
Other important species of flora and fauna:
– Rana ridibunda
– Felis silvestris
The site stand out by the area occupied by habitats 91V0 Dacian Beech forests (Symphyto-Fagion) 9150 Medio-European Forest Beech Cephalanthero-Fagion, occupying 30% and well preserved natural structure represented by:
– Greater diversity of ages and sizes,
– Alternation of forest and glade cohesive,
– The presence of beech natural regeneration (There is a tendency for expansion of the species tend surrounding areas – meadows)
– The diversity and good conservation status of herbaceous blanket.
For the portion included in the forest fund and forest stands, for site trees was assigned the function of production and protection, these being systematically covered with exploitation works of the timber.